O BUDA E A SERPENTE – por Heinrich Zimmer

O BUDA E A SERPENTE
por Heinrich Zimmer

“Gautama Siddharta, o Buddha histórico que pregou nos séculos VI e V a.C., era um reformador monástico que, aceitando o contexto da civilização indiana, permaneceu nele inserido. Jamais negou o panteão hindu nem rompeu com o ideal tradicional indiano de libertação através da iluminação (moksa, nirvana). Sua obra específica não consistiu numa refutação, mas numa reformulação; baseou-se em sua profunda vivência pessoal dos atemporais preceitos indianos que instruem sobre a libertação dos laços de maya.

(…) Como todos os santos importantes da Índia, Gautama foi venerado, mesmo enquanto viveu, como veículo humano da Verdade Absoluta. Depois de morto, sua memória foi vestida com as roupagens exemplares do mito. Quando a seita budista expandiu-se… o grande fundador tornou-se cada vez mais um símbolo digno de veneração – representativo do poder redentor da iluminação latente em todo o ser enredado pela ilusão.

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Jardim

Quando o Bem-Aventurado, na última vigília da Noite do Conhecimento, compreendeu o mistério da originação dependente, os dez mil mundos ribombaram ao alcançar ele a onisciência. Por sete dias permaneceu em postura de meditação sob a árvore Bo (ou Bodhi, a “Árvore da Iluminação”), às margens do rio Nairanjana, absorvido na iluminada bem-aventurança.

Refletiu, com a compreensão que viera de adquirir, sobre a servidão de toda a existência individualizada; sobre o poder fatal da ignorância inata que subjuga com seu sortilégio todos os seres vivos; sobre a irracional sede de vida que se segue e que impregna tudo; sobre o círculo infinito de nascimento, sofrimento, declínio, morte e renascimento.

Transcorridos sete dias, ele se ergueu, caminhou um pouco e deteve-se junto a uma grande figueira, sob a qual retomou sua postura de meditante; assim esteve por mais sete dias, mergulhado na bem-aventurança da iluminação. Depois ergueu-se de novo e alcançou outra árvore – a terceira.

Sentando-se outra vez, reverenciou por novos sete dias o estado de excelsa calma. Essa terceira árvore recebeu o nome de “Árvore de Mucalinda, o Rei-Serpente”. Mucalinda, uma serpente prodigiosa, vivia numa cavidade do chão, entre as raízes. Percebeu, assim que Buddha mergulhou em sua bem-aventurança, que uma grande nuvem de tempestade começava a adensar-se, embora não estivessem na estação chuvosa. Saiu no mesmo instante de sua morada escura e envolveu sete vezes, nas espirais de seu corpo, o corpo santo do Iluminado; sob o diâmetro do gigantesco capelo dilatado abrigou, como sob um guarda-chuva, a cabeça sagrada.

Por sete dias choveu e soprou vento frio, mas Buddha permaneceu em meditação. No sétimo, dispersou-se a tempestade extemporânea. Mucalinda despiu-se de suas espirais, transformando-se num jovem de nobre aparência e, levando à testa as mãos unidas, inclinou-se para adorar o salvador do mundo.

A lenda e as imagens de Mucalinda-Buddha representam uma perfeita reconciliação de princípios antagônicos. A serpente, simbolizando a força vital que dá origem a nascimento e renascimento, e o salvador, aquele que vence a cega ânsia de vida, que rompe os laços do nascimento e aponta o caminho da imperecível transcendência, desvendam aqui, em harmoniosa união, uma visão para além de todas as dualidades do pensamento.

Onde quer que encontremos uma sucessão de monumentos budistas que denote uma continuidade razoável, e que se refira aos séculos imediatamente anteriores à nossa era – aqueles que sobreviveram aos rigores do clima indiano e às vicissitudes históricas -, verificamos que as representações dos espíritos ofídicos estão associadas a inúmeros outros protetores divinos da fertilidade, prosperidade e vitalidade terrestre.”

Mucalinda2
ZIMMER, Heinrich. Mitos e Símbolos Na Arte e Civilização da Índia.
Ed. Palas Athena, São Paulo, 1989. Pg. 60 a 62.

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SIGA VIAGEM:

Alan Watts (1915-1973): O que há de errado com a nossa cultura [ASSISTA O VÍDEO / LEGENDAS EM PORTUGUÊS]

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Alan Watts: O Que Há de Errado Com a Nossa Cultura
(Leg. em Português)

“Why is it that we don’t seem to be able to adjust ourselves to the physical environment without destroying it?

Why is it that in a way this culture represents in a unique fashion the law of diminishing returns? That our success is a failure.

That we are building up an enormous technological civilization which seems to promise the fulfillment of every wish almost at the touch of a button. And yet as in so many fairy tales when the wish is finally materialized, they are like fairy gold, they are not really material at all.

In other words, so many of our products, our cars, our homes, our clothing, our food, It looks as if it were really the instant creation of pure thought; that is to say it’s thoroughly insubstantial, lacking in what the connoisseur of wine calls body.

And in so many other ways, the riches that we produce are ephemeral. and as the result of that we are frustrated, we are terribly frustrated. We feel that the only thing is to go on and getting more and more.

And as a result of that the whole landscape begins to look like the nursery of a spoiled child who’s got too many toys and is bored with them and throws them away as fast as he gets them, plays them for a few minutes.

Also we are dedicated to a tremendous war on the basic material dimensions of time and space. We want to obliterate their limitations. We want to get everything done as fast as possible. We want to convert the rhythms and the skills of work into cash, which indeed you can buy something with but you can’t eat it.

And then rush home to get away from work and begin the real business of life, to enjoy ourselves. You know, for the vast majority of American families what seems to be the real point of life, what you rush home to get to is to watch

an electronic reproduction of life. You can’t touch it, it doesn’t smell, and it has no taste.

You might think that people getting home to the real point of life in a robust material culture would go home to a colossal banquet or an orgy of love-making or a riot of music and dancing; But nothing of the kind.

It turns out to be this purely passive contemplation of a twittering screen. You see mile after mile of darkened houses with that little electronic screen flickering in the room. Everybody isolated, watching this thing. And thus in no real communion with each other at all. And this isolation of people into a private world of their own is really the creation of a mindless crowd.

And so we don’t get with each other except for public expressions or getting rid of our hostility like football or prize-fighting.

And even in the spectacles one sees on this television it’s perfectly proper to exhibit people slugging and slaying each other but oh dear no, not people loving each other, except in a rather restrained way.

One can only draw the conclusion that the assumption underlying this is that expressions of physical love are far more dangerous than expressions of physical hatred.

And it seems to me that a culture that has that sort of assumption is basically crazy and devoted – unintentionally indeed but nevertheless in-fact devoted not to survival but to the actual destruction of life.”

ALAN WATTS

1LEIA TAMBÉM:

Psychedelics and Religious Experience
by Alan Watts

“The experiences resulting from the use of psychedelic drugs are often described in religious terms. They are therefore of interest to those like myself who, in the tradition of William James, are concerned with the psychology of religion. For more than thirty years I have been studying the causes, the consequences, and the conditions of those peculiar states of consciousness in which the individual discovers himself to be one continuous process with God, with the Universe, with the Ground of Being, or whatever name he may use by cultural conditioning or personal preference for the ultimate and eternal reality. We have no satisfactory and definitive name for experiences of this kind. The terms “religious experience,” “mystical experience,” and “cosmic consciousness” are all too vague and comprehensive to denote that specific mode of consciousness which, to those who have known it, is as real and overwhelming as falling in love. This article describes such states of consciousness induced by psychedelic drugs, although they are virtually indistinguishable from genuine mystical experience. The article then discusses objections to the use of psychedelic drugs that arise mainly from the opposition between mystical values and the traditional religious and secular values of Western society.”

FULL ARTICLE

Budismo – Curso em 24 aulas de 30 min. com o Prof. Malcolm David Eckel (vídeos em H.D.)

buddha-thousands-of-candles“This course is a survey of the history of Buddhism from its origin in India in the sixth century B.C.E. to contemporary times. The course is meant to introduce students to the astonishing vitality and adaptability of a tradition that has transformed the civilizations of India, Southeast Asia, Tibet, China, Korea and Japan, and has now become a lively component in the cultures of Europe, Australia, and the Americas.

To understand the Buddha’s contribution to the religious history of the world, it is important to know the problems he inherited and the options that were available to him to solve them. In ancient India, before the time of the Buddha, these problems were expressed in the Vedas, the body of classical Hindu scriptures. The Vedas introduce us to scholars and ritual specialists who searched for the knowledge that would free them from the cycle of death and rebirth. The Buddha inherited this quest for knowledge and directed it to his own distinctive ends.

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“Born as Siddharta Gautama into a princely family in northern India about 566 B.C.E., the Buddha left his father’s palace and took up the life of an Indian ascetic. The key moment in his career came after years of difficult struggle, when he sat down under a tree and “woke up” to the cause of suffering and to its final cessation. He then wandered the roads of India, gathering a group of disciples and establishing a pattern of discipline that became the foundation of the Buddhist community. The Buddha helped his disciples analyze the causes of suffering and chart their own path to nirvana. Finally, after a long teaching career, he died and passed quietly from the cycle of death and rebirth.

After the Buddha’s death, attention shifted from the Buddha himself to the teachings and moral principles embodied in his Dharma. Monks gathered to recite his teachings and produced a canon of Buddhist scripture, while disputes in the early community paved the way for the diversity and complexity of later Buddhist schools. Monks also developed pattern of worship and artistic expression that helped convey the experience of the Buddha in ritual and art.

The Buddhist King Asoka, who reigned from about 268 to 239 B.C.E., sent the first Buddhist missionairies to Sri Lanka. Asoka left behind the Buddhist concept of a “righteous king” who gives political expression to Buddhist values. This ideal has been embodied in recent times by King Mongkut (18 October 1804 – 1 October 1868) in Thailand and Aung San Suu Kyi, who won the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize for her nonviolent resistance to military repression in Burma.

Aung

Aung San Suu Kyi (born 19 June 1945), Nobel Peace Prize Winner – Wikipedia Bio: “Influenced by both Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence and more specifically by Buddhist concepts, Aung San Suu Kyi entered politics to work for democratization…”

Buddhism entered China in the second century of the common era, at a time when the Chinese people had become disillusioned with traditional Confucian values. To bridge the gap between the cultures of India and China, Buddhist translators borrowed Taoist vocabulary to express Buddhist ideas. Buddhism took on a distinctively Chinese character, becoming more respectful of duties to the family and ancestors, more pragmatic and this-worldly, and more consistent with traditional Chinese respect for harmony with nature. During the T’ang Dynasty (618-907), Buddhism was expressed in a series of brilliant Chinese schools, including the Ch’an School of meditation that came to be known in Japan as Zen.

lord buddha lifestyle HD Wallpapers

Since the end of the 19th century, Buddhism has become a respected part of life in countries far beyond the traditional home of Buddhism in Asia. The teaching that began on the plains of India 2.500 years ago has now been transformed in ways that would once have been unimaginable, but it still carries the feeling of serenity and freedom that we sense in the image of the Buddha himself. In its 2.500-year history, from the time of the Buddha to the present day, Buddhism has grown from a tiny religious community in  northern India into a movement that now spans the globe. It has shaped the development of civilizations in India and Southeast Asia; has had a major influence on the civilizations of China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan; and today has become a major part of the multi-religious world of Europe and North America.

In the following lectures (watch the videos below) we’ll explore the Buddhist tradition as the unfolding of a story. It is the story of the Buddha himself and the story of generations of people who have used the model of the Buddha’s life to shape not only their own lives but the societies in which they live…”

Professor Malcolm David Eckel, Course Guidebook. 

INFO ON THE AUTHOR:  Professor Malcolm David Eckel holds two bachelor’s degrees, one in English from Harvard University and a second in Theology from Oxford University. Professor Eckel earned his master’s degree in theology at Oxford University and his Ph.D. in the Study of Comparative Religion at Harvard University. He held teaching positions at Ohio Wesleyan University, Middlebury College in Vermont, and the Harvard Divinity School, where he served as acting director of the Center for the Study of World Religions. At Boston University, Professor Eckel teaches courses on Buddhism, comparative religion, and the religions of Asia. In 1998, Professor Eckel received the Metcalf Award for Teaching Excellence, the university’s highest award for teaching. In addition to writing many articles, Professor Eckel has published two books on Buddhist philosophy: “To See the Buddha: A Philosopher’s Quest for the Meaning of Emptiness” and “Buddhism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places”. – www.thegreatcourses.com

to be continued…

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