Gaia no Antropoceno – Bruno Latour em “Uma Antropologia dos Modernos”



“Geologists are beginning to use the term ANTHROPOCENE to designate the era of Earth’s history that extends from the scientific and industrial revolutions to the present day. These geologists see humanity as a force of the same amplitude as volcanoes or even plate tectonics. It is now before GAIA that we are summoned to appear: Gaia, the odd, doubly composite figure made up of science and mythology, used by certain specialists to designate the Earth that surrounds us and that we surround, the truly global Globe that threatens us even as we threaten it.

If I wanted to dramatize – perhaps overdramatize – the ambiance of my investigative project, I would say that it seeks to register the aftershocks of the MODERNIZATION FRONT just as the confrontation with Gaia appears imminent.

At all events, we shall not cure the Moderns of their attachment to their cherished theme, the modernization front, if we do not offer them an alternate narrative… After all, the Moderns have cities who are often quite beautiful; they are city-dwellers, citizens, they call themselves (and are sometimes called) “civilized”.

Why would we not have the right to propose to them a form of habitation that is more comfortable and convenient and that takes into account both their past and their future – a more sustainable habitat, in a way? Why would they not be at ease there? Why would they wander in the permanent utopia that has for so long made them beings without hearth or home – and has driven them for that very reason to inflict fire and bloodshed on the planet?

After all these years of wandering in the desert, do they have hope of reaching not the Promised Land but Earth itself, quite simply, the only one they have, at once underfoot and all around them, the aptly named Gaia?”

“An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns”
Harvard University Press, 2013. Translated by Catherine Porter.
Download e-book at Library Genesis.


Adam and Eve (Art by Alex Grey)

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The Affects of Capitalism (full lecture)
(If you wanna skip the intro, Latour actually starts speaking at 12 min and 45 seconds.)

Jared Diamond (1937 – ): Armas, Germes e Aço

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American scientist and author best known for his popular science booksThe Third Chimpanzee (1991), Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize), Collapse (2005) and The World Until Yesterday (2012). Originally trained in physiology, Diamond’s work is known for drawing from a variety of fields, including anthropology, ecology, geography, and evolutionary biology. As of 2013, he is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles… [+]:


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You might also enjoy:

National Geographic’s Collapse (2010)

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London Real (Full Interview)

Download Jared Diamond’s books

Che Guevara: Download dos ebooks de 2 grandes biografias (Jon Lee Anderson & Jorge Castañeda) + Paulo Freire & Che + Documentário Chevolution…

che guevara

Ernesto “Che” Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)

“Che was not only a heroic fighter, but a revolutionary thinker, with a political and moral project and a system of ideas and values for which he fought and gave his life. The philosophy which gave his political and ideological choices their coherence, colour, and taste was a deep revolutionary humanism. For Che, the true Communist, the true revolutionary was one who felt that the great problems of all humanity were his or her personal problems, one who was capable of ‘feeling anguish whenever someone was assassinated, no matter where it was in the world, and of feeling exultation whenever a new banner of liberty was raised somewhere else’. Che’s internationalism – a way of life, a secular faith, a categorical imperative, and a spiritual “nationality” – was the living and concrete expression of this revolutionary Marxist humanism.” — Michael Löwy, author of “The Marxism of Che Guevara: Philosophy, Economics, Revolutionary Warfare”

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che-guevara-a-revolutionary-life-by-jon-lee-andersonChe Guevara: A Revolutionary Life Jon Lee Anderson (2010, Grove Press, 672 pgs) Download e-book (7 mb, epub)

“Acclaimed around the world and a national best-seller, this is the definitive work on Che Guevara, the dashing rebel whose epic dream was to end poverty and injustice in Latin America and the developing world through armed revolution. Jon Lee Anderson’s biography traces Che’s extraordinary life, from his comfortable Argentine upbringing to the battlefields of the Cuban revolution, from the halls of power in Castro’s government to his failed campaign in the Congo and assassination in the Bolivian jungle.Anderson has had unprecedented access to the personal archives maintained by Guevara’s widow and carefully guarded Cuban government documents. He has conducted extensive interviews with Che’s comrades—some of whom speak here for the first time—and with the CIA men and Bolivian officers who hunted him down. Anderson broke the story of where Guevara’s body was buried, which led to the exhumation and state burial of the bones. Many of the details of Che’s life have long been cloaked in secrecy and intrigue. Meticulously researched and full of exclusive information, Che Guevara illuminates as never before this mythic figure who embodied the high-water mark of revolutionary communism as a force in history.”

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Compañero: The Life and Death of Che Jorge G. Castaneda (1998, Vintage, 496 pgs) Download e-book (5 mb, epub)

“By the time he was killed in the jungles of Bolivia, where his body was displayed like a deposed Christ, Ernesto “Che” Guevara had become a synonym for revolution everywhere from Cuba to the barricades of Paris. This extraordinary biography peels aside the veil of the Guevara legend to reveal the charismatic, restless man behind it. Drawing on archival materials from three continents and on interviews with Guevara’s family and associates, Castaneda follows Che from his childhood in the Argentine middle class through the years of pilgrimage that turned him into a committed revolutionary. He examines Guevara’s complex relationship with Fidel Castro, and analyzes the flaws of character that compelled him to leave Cuba and expend his energies, and ultimately his life, in quixotic adventures in the Congo and Bolivia. A masterpiece of scholarship, Compañero is the definitive portrait of a figure who continues to fascinate and inspire the world over.”

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Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution Peter McLaren (2000, Rowman & Littlefield, 264 pgs) Download e-book (31 mb, pdf)

“Che Guevara is usually perceived as a Romantic model whom we should admire, while pursuing our daily business as usual—the most perverse defense against what Che stood for. What McLaren’s fascinating book demonstrates is that, on the contrary, Che is a model for our times, a figure we should imitate in our struggle against neoliberal global capitalism.” (Slavoj Zizek)

“McLaren’s writing is a brilliant blend of passion, commitment, and critical analysis and insight. It is poetry and prose in an intimate dance that touches, at once, readers’ hearts and minds. This new book, which appeared at the very dawn of the new millennium, is no exception. Indeed, it is probably McLaren’s most important and exciting text to date. It is also one of the most important books on critical education, and thus also education and social justice, to have been written in the twentieth century. Only a ‘Comrade of the heart’ could have written with such ardour, precision, and depth.” (Paula Allman, Education and Social Justice)

“Peter McLaren’s Che Guevara, Paulo Freire is a vigorous intervention in the complexity of the contemporary political situation—from rearticulating the project of radical pedagogy to his argument to reorient the left itself. Through his groundbreaking regrasping of Che’s revolutionary practices,McLaren critiques the left—especially progressive left pedagogy—for its marginalization of class and complacent reformism. In an effective intervention, he puts the international class struggle at the forefront of a revolutionary pedagogy. As part of his argument for the reorganization of social institutions in Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, McLaren offers a sustained radical critique of transnational neoliberalism and its corporatization of education—in doing so, he places revolutionary pedagogy in solidarity with the oppressed of global capitalism.” (Teresa L. Ebert, Author of Ludic Feminism and After)

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Ernesto “Che” Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)

FASCISMO INC: Como os capitalistas financiaram o nazi-fascismo de Hitler e Mussolini – por Cynara Menezes (Socialista Morena) [Assista o doc completo]


Dirigido por Aris Chatzistefanou
(Grécia, 2014, 83 min)
Infowars Productions
Dos mesmos produtores de Dividocracia e Catastroika

por Cynara Menezes (Socialista Morena)

Quem fornecia o pesticida Zyklon-B (cianeto de hidrogênio) colocado nas chamadas “câmaras de gás” utilizadas pelos nazistas para exterminar milhões de judeus? A empresa alemã IG Farben, antecessora da mesma Bayer que continua a fornecer inseticidas mundo afora.

A ignorância em torno do socialismo não resiste a cinco minutos de pesquisa no Google. A mais recorrente mentira que a direita tenta espalhar e que encontra receptividade em jovens sem leitura, desconhecedores da história e que se contentam com meia dúzia de frases nas redes sociais, é que o sanguinário Adolf Hitler foi um socialista. Isto baseado na “genial” sacada de que o nome do partido dele era Partido Nacional Socialista. Certamente devem achar que a Coréia do Norte é democrática e popular, já que se chama República Democrática Popular da Coréia. Ou talvez o PSB brasileiro seja socialista, né?

Vários esquerdistas na rede perderam algum tempo desmentindo a idiotice. Os melhores links, em minha opinião, estão no artigo Detonando a Mentira de que os Nazistas eram de Esquerda (em inglês), onde o blogueiro e tuiteiro Shoq escancara o total nonsense desta história. Mas o cineasta independente grego Aris Chatzistefanou foi além e praticamente desenhou para quem se recusa a pesquisar ou pelo menos usar a lógica.

A ascensão do nazismo de Adolf Hitler na Alemanha e do fascismo de Benito Mussolini na Itália durante os anos 1920, 1930 e 1940 só foi possível com a colaboração e o suporte financeiro de grandes corporações ainda hoje poderosas: BMW, Fiat, IG Farben (Bayer), Volkswagen, Siemens, IBM, Chase Bank, Allianz… Sem contar, é claro, com os grupos de mídia.

A sede da BMW, em Munique, fica localizada a 12 km de distância de onde ficava o campo de concentração de Dachau. Nesta foto de 1943, pode-se ver o trabalho forçado realizado nas fábricas da BMW por aqueles que haviam sido encarcerados em Dachau, reconhecíveis por seus uniformes listrados. Fonte: Forced Labor / BMW Group Archiv.

A sede da BMW, em Munique, fica localizada a 12 km de distância de onde ficava o campo de concentração de Dachau. Nesta foto de 1943, pode-se ver o trabalho forçado realizado nas fábricas da BMW por aqueles que haviam sido encarcerados em Dachau, reconhecíveis por seus uniformes listrados. Fonte: Forced Labor / BMW Group Archiv.

O filme Fascismo Inc. é o terceiro feito por Chatzistefanou para mostrar as origens da crise econômica na Europa e na Grécia em particular. São imperdíveis também os primeiros da série: Dividocracia e Catastroika, que denunciam a bolha imobiliária e depois a “ajuda” do FMI (Fundo Monetário Internacional), fiel à sua velha cartilha de socorrer os ricos em detrimento dos pobres. Em Fascismo Inc., o cineasta esmiúça a estreita colaboração de industriais e banqueiros com os nazistas para perseguir e destruir o sindicalismo e os socialistas, a quem chamavam de “terroristas” (qualquer coincidência com o Brasil de hoje será mera semelhança). Detalhe: Hitler extinguiu o Partido Comunista alemão um dia depois de tomar posse.

O documentário relata inclusive como a perseguição aos judeus não foi apenas uma questão racial, mas também tinha interesses econômicos. Como os judeus integravam uma poderosa classe média na Alemanha de então, os nazis se utilizaram do racismo para fazê-los bode expiatório da crise, acusando-os de “roubar os empregos” dos alemães não por acaso, o mesmo discurso que a direita utiliza atualmente em relação aos imigrantes na Europa. O fascismo de Benito Mussolini não foi, ao contrário do que os ditadores pregavam, um movimento de massas: o rei Emanuel III entregou o poder a Mussolini porque era o que queriam as indústrias do Norte da Itália. Para confrontar as massas de esquerda, era preciso criar um movimento de massas de direita. Que melhores líderes para isso do que o psico Adolf e o fanfarrão Benito?

O filme mostra ainda como, no tribunal de Nuremberg, as empresas envolvidas com o nazismo foram submetidas a uma pantomima de condenação. Enquanto os oficiais nazis foram enforcados, quem entrou com o dinheiro para financiar a empreitada foi solto anos depois os diretores da IG Farben (Bayer), que fornecia os químicos para matar gente, foram condenados a no máximo 8 anos.

Mas o pior são os sinais que Chatzistefanou está vendo, na sociedade grega, de recrudescimento deste nazi-fascismo financiado pela grana: os partidos neonazis gregos são apoiados por parte da elite econômica e dos grupos de mídia (olha eles aí de novo) do país. E o cineasta está convencido de que é uma tendência que pode se espalhar como consequência da crise. “Nosso lema é: ‘o que acontece na Grécia nunca fica na Grécia. Temo que este crescimento da extrema-direita e movimentos neo-nazistas que estamos vendo nos últimos anos na Grécia apareçam em outros países da Europa onde a austeridade foi imposta do mesmo jeito” (leia mais aqui).

Muita gente usa a tirania do ditador soviético Josef Stalin para atacar a esquerda. Stalin (cujo exército, por sinal, derrotou os nazistas) é acusado da morte de milhões, mas o socialismo foi uma de suas vítimas. Hitler também matou milhões, mas o capitalismo não sofreu sob o nazismo ou o fascismo. Pelo contrário: foi seu financiador.

Assistam o filme, é muito bom. Legendas em português.

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Assista também, dos mesmos produtores,
na íntegra e legendados em português:

Do descompasso entre a fixidez das palavras e a fluidez das coisas – Um soneto de Jean-Baptiste Chassignet (1571-1635)


Van Gogh’s Starry Night Over the Rhone


Beside a flowing river sit and gaze,
And see how it perpetually runs
In wave on wave, in many thousand turns,
As through the fields it takes its fluid ways.

Thou’lt never see again the wave which first
Flow’d by thee; water never the same;
It passes day by day, although the name
Of water and of river doth persist.

So changes man, and will not be tomorrow
That which he is today, he cannot borrow
That strenght which time doth alter and consume:

Until our death one name we do retain;
Although today no parcel doth remain
Of what I was, the name I still assume.

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Assieds-toi sur le bord d’une ondante rivière :
Tu la verras fluer d’un perpétuel cours,
Et flots sur flots roulant en mille et mille tours
Décharger par les prés son humide carrière.

Mais tu ne verras rien de cette onde première
Qui naguère coulait ; l’eau change tous les jours,
Tous les jours elle passe, et la nommons toujours
Même fleuve, et même eau, d’une même manière.

Ainsi l’homme varie, et ne sera demain
Telle comme aujourd’hui du pauvre corps humain
La force que le temps abrévie et consomme :

Le nom sans varier nous suit jusqu’au trépas,
Et combien qu’aujourd’hui celui ne sois-je pas
Qui vivais hier passé, toujours même on me nomme.

English translation by Frank Warnke

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Poets previously published @ Awestruck Wanderer: